First Aid Refresher – Secondary Survey
Head to Toe Check
This is a systematic examination of the patient, looking for evidence of injuries. Generally, follows a ‘look, listen, feel’ approach. Remember that everyone has a top, a bottom, two sides, a front, and a back. Injuries can also hide in corners.
REMEMBER!!! Wear gloves and check at each stage for blood on your hands, otherwise you will get to the toes and not realise where the blood is coming from!
- Wounds – bruising/bleeding
- CSF leaks from ears or nose
- Panda eyes/Battle’s sign
- Noisy breathing
- Depressed/soft areas of skull
- Symmetrical expansion
- Paradoxical movement
- Breath sounds, rate, depth
REMEMBER – Check for medical alert tags – necklace or bracelet!!!
- Bowel sounds
- DO NOT PRESS ON OR ROCK THE PELVIS
- Tenderness Arms and Legs